Well I am diving head first into this corner of the R/C hobby. I have been doing R/C aircraft for quite a while now and was amazed the first time I saw a well performing quad rotor. I am now even more amazed with where the prices are in relation to what you get! Now is the time for me to get into this hobby. Although I need a little guidance... I have been reading everything I can on this site for about a week before I signed up. I will have MANY more questions but to get started I wanted to confirm my basic needs to get this going. This is a list of what I think I need FOR BASIC FLYING and a couple of things that are nice to have. Let me know if I have missed anything major.
1) quad rotor airframe
2) minimum 6 CH TX and RX
3) 4 brushless motors and ESC
4) LIPO battery
5) I am wanting to buy the APM 2.5+ with power module add on and telemetry set. This should take care of everything else no?
6) various connectors, hardware, and simple stuff.
Props. Buy eight because you're going to go through a few while learning to fly.
I assume you have a lipo charger and a prop balancer if you've been flying RC already.
Mission Planner needs a machine running Windows or Linux, a laptop or tablet is most convenient.
I would strongly recommend installing LED position lights on your quad, maintaining orientation can be a bit difficult with multi-rotors.
A test stand is almost a requirement, in my opinion, a well tuned craft saves a lot of money and keeps morale in the green zone.
Honestly, most multi-rotors, by their nature, have plenty of power. I would think about your system design in terms of prioritizing the weight.
For example: If you want to maximize endurance and don't need to lift a heavy payload, then put most of your weight budget in the battery and choose lightweight motors/ESC, airframe, etc.
What kind of mission is your bird going to be used for?
I didn't mean to ignore your question. If you shoot for a hover at %40-50 throttle, that's probably going to leave you PLENTY of climbout authority, and keep your motors in their efficiency happy spot. I would focus amp draw to thrust curves for your motor/prop/voltage decision, versus max thrust.
Is there any type of formula to figure this out without actually just buying stuff and trying it.
Look for a retailer who will provide you with the info. Something like this.
The motors I have picked out have a chart like that but no throttle percentage. I can only assume that the #'s provided are at 100% throttle.
What do you know about those T motors?
It's probably safe to assume that the figures advertised are max thrust, and you can extrapolate down from there to get a general idea of %50 throttle, just remember motor curves are just that -- a curve.
I'm going to try the T-motors myself when I make my next investment in components, I have no first hand experience yet. In general, I think large diameter slow kv motors swinging big props are the way to achieve long endurance and low vibes.