Patrick Hanley's Posts (4)

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Stallion 3D is a 3D aerodynamics analysis software package developed by Dr. Patrick Hanley of Hanley Innovations (a Florida business that develops aerodynamics software for education and small businesses). Starting with only the STL file, Stallion 3D is an all-in-one Windows software tool that rapidly validate conceptual and preliminary aerodynamic designs of aircraft, UAVs, hydrofoil and road vehicles.

Version 5.0 has the following features:

  • Built-in automatic grid generation
  • Built-in 3D compressible Euler Solver for rapid aerodynamics analysis.
  • Built-in 3D laminar Navier-Stokes solver
  • Built-in 3D Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solver
  • Multi-core flow solver processing on your Windows laptop or desktop using OpenMP
  • Inputs STL files for processing
  • Built-in wing/hydrofoil geometry creation tool
  • Enables stability derivative computation using quasi-steady rigid body rotation
  • Up to 100 actuator disc (RANS solver only) for simulating jets and prop wash
  • Reports the lift, drag and moment coefficients
  • Reports the lift, drag and moment magnitudes
  • Plots surface pressure, velocity, Mach number and temperatures
  • Produces 2-d plots of Cp and other quantities along constant coordinates line along the structure

The introductory price of Stallion 3D 5.0 is $3,495 for the yearly subscription or $8,000 for a perpetual license. The software is also available in Lab and Class Packages. For more information, please visit or call us at (352) 261-3376.

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Design & Analysis of a Flying Wing

I made this video to show how to design and analyze a small flying UAV using my 3DFoil software.

I wrote this software several years ago using a vortex lattice approach. The vortex lattice method in the code is based on vortex rings (as opposed to the horse shoe vortex approach).  The vortex ring method allows for wing twist (geometric and aerodynamic) so a designer can fashion the wing for drag reduction and prevent tip stall by optimizing the amount of washout.  The approach also allows sweep (backwards & forwards) and multiple dihedral/anhedral angles.

Another thing I designed into the software is the capability to predict profile drag and stall.  The is done by analyzing the airfoil sections with a linear strength vortex panel method with a boundary layer solver and then using that information to predict the locations of the transition and separation points.

The software user interface is based on the multi-surface approach. In this method, the wing is designed using multiple tapered surface where the designer can specify airfoil shapes, sweep, dihedral angles and twist. With this approach, the designer can see the contribution to the lift, drag and moments for each surface.  Towards the end of the video, I show how the multi-surface approach is used to design effective winglets by comparing the profile drag and induced drag generated by the winglet surfaces.

Thanks for reading.  The video is available on Youtube.  The software can be found at ;

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Aerodynamics in Plain English


Several year ago, I wrote a booklet entitled Aerodynamics in Plain English.  Last week, I convert it to a PDF EBook.  I embed the entire book on the front page of my website for viewing (please scroll down to the end of the page).  There is also an option to purchase the PDF version if you would like a permanent copy.  

My webpage is located at the following url:

The following topics are addressed in Aerodynamics in Plain English:

Basic Concepts

Definition of aerodynamics and fluid dynamics.  Find out why aerodynamics is a difficult topic of study.

Forces on an Airplane. Why Does it Fly?
Introduction to forces acting on an airplane. Explanation of the role of the lift, drag, weight and thrust forces as related to flight.

What is Density?
Definition of density; Comparison of air and water densities; The  relations between lift, drag and density.

What is Viscosity?
Definition of viscosity;  Introduction to the role of viscosity in aerodynamic drag.

What is Compressibility?
Definition of compressibility; Speed of sound definition; Mach number definition; Prandtl-Glauert rule.

What is Pressure?
Definition of pressure; the relations between lift and drag and pressure; conservation laws and pressure.

Non-Dimensional Numbers
Some non-dimensional number in aerodynamics include the lift, drag and moment coefficients in addition to Reynolds number and Mach number.

Reynolds Numbers
Definition and importance of Reynolds number. Table with sample calculations of Reynolds number.

Lift, Drag and Moment Coefficients
Definition and calculation of lift, drag and moment coefficients. Importance of consistent units examined in calculations.

The Wing
Role of different shaped wings; Definition of induced drag; Introduction to tapered, sweptback and delta wings.

How Does a Wing Generate Lift?
The relations between conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, streamlines, Bernoulli equation, pressure and lift are discussed in this section.

How Does a Wing Generate Drag?
This discussion about the generation of profile drag includes the role of boundary layers, transition points, adverse pressure gradients and laminar flow airfoils.

This glossary of terms define the parts of an airfoil and characterize different types of airfoils.

How to Pick Airfoil for Wings

How to use the lift and drag polar plot, the lift and moment versus angle of attack plots to compare airfoils and choose the correct one for your application.

Designing and Testing Airfoils
This section introduces inverse design and airfoil modification concepts for designing airfoils. An overview of experimental and computer testing of airfoils is presented.

Considerations for Makers
Further consideration for builders examine the role of airfoil thickness in the design of wings.

A glossary of several terms in the field of aerodynamics.

Books and software for further exploration of aerodynamics.

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Airfoil Analysis

3689669014?profile=original  Which airfoil shape is the best?

My name is Patrick Hanley and I am new to DIY drone.  My background is in aerodynamics.  I received my SM & Ph.D. degrees from MIT.  I worked as a professor at U of Connecticut teaching aerodynamics and compressible fluids before starting Hanley Innovations about 20+ year ago.

This video is an introduction to the commercial software that I write and post on my website:

I look forward to interacting with the DIY Drones community.

Best wishes,


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