[This original ArduPilot board, now called the "Legacy ArduPilot" is no longer produced or officially supported by the DIY Drones dev team, and this page is maintained just for historic reasons. However, there are still many users of it out there and it still works fine. The user group for Legacy ArduPilot users, for both thermopile and IMU use, is here.]


ArduPilot is a full-featured autopilot based on the Arduino open-source hardware platform. It uses infrared (thermopile) sensors or an IMU for stabilization and GPS for navigation. It is the autopilot used to win the 2009 Sparkfun Autonomous Vehicle Competition.

The hardware is available from Sparkfun for $24.95. An expansion board ("Shield") kits that includes an airspeed sensor, a 3.3v power regulator for 3.3v GPS modules and other sensors and cables and connectors for easy attachment of the XY and Z sensors, is available from our own store for $57.20.


User f

ArduPilot features include:

  • Can be used for an autonomous aircraft, car or boat.
  • Built-in hardware failsafe that uses a separate circuit (multiplexer chip and ATTiny processor) to transfer control from the RC system to the autopilot and back again. Includes ability to reboot the main processor in mid-flight.
  • Multiple 3D waypoints (limited only by memory)
  • Altitude controlled with the elevator and throttle
  • Comes with a 6-pin GPS connector for the 4Hz uBlox5 or 1hz EM406 GPS modules.
  • Has six spare analog inputs (with ADC on each) and six spare digital input/outputs to add additional sensors
  • Supports addition of wireless modules for real-time telemetry
  • Based on a 16MhZ Atmega328 processor. Total onboard processing power aprox 24 MIPS.
  • Very small: 30mm x 47mm
  • Can be powered by either the RC receiver or a separate battery
  • Four RC-in channels (plus the autopilot on/off channel) can be processed by the autopilot. Autopilot can also control four channels out.
  • LEDs for power, failsafe (on/off), status and GPS (satellite lock).


ArduPilot requires the free Arduino IDE to edit and upload the code to the ArduPilot board.

The code is currently optimized for the Mutiplex EasyStar three-channel powered glider and FMA sensors, but can be modified for other aircraft and sensors. It uses the rudder/ailerons and elevator to maintain level flight and navigate to GPS waypoints. It supports a desktop setup utility and ground station software. It also includes a "fly-by-wire" mode that simply stabilizes RC flight. The main code is ArduPilot2.x.zip in the download section of our Google Code repository, where x is the latest version.

What you need to make a fully-functional autopilot:

Open source extras:

  • If you want to build your own board from scratch, the necessary files and component lists are here.
  • [Note: you shouldn't need this, since this code is loaded on the ArduPilot board at the factory] Latest multiplexer code (for the board's second processor, an Attiny, which runs the failsafe system) is here.
    Instructions for loading this code are here.

Recommended UAV setup:

Airframe option one: Hobbico SuperStar (49" wingspan, $95, shown above). This is an inexpensive, good flying high-wing trainer with ailerons. It can be hand launched in a park or take off from a runway, and replacement parts are readily available in case of a crash. If you want much better performance with this aircraft, you can upgrade it to a brushless motor, speed controller and a LiPo battery. [If you don't already have one, you'll also need a balancing charger and power supply.] Note: any stable aircraft with both ailerons (for stabilization) and rudder (for navigation) can work, so feel free to experiment with what you've got.

Airframe option two (recommended for ArduPilot 2.x): EasyStar (shown above). Performance can be improved with the modifications described in this post.

You'll also need:

  • A six or seven channel RC transmitter and receiver, with at least one toggle switch (ideally three-position but two-position will work, too, although you will have to mix channels to have access to both autopilot modes in the air), such as the Futaba 7C.
  • Some servos (at least three for ArduPilot 1.0; at least two for ArduPilot 2.x) and at least three female-to-female servo cables to connect the RC receiver to ArduPilot.

Cool optional extras for your UAV:

Views: 310161

Comment by Earl on August 12, 2009 at 5:04pm
well, my Ublox wont work right on the shield 3.3v. It does not want to get a lock. I think it may be noise on the 3.3v line.
If I power the Ublox with an independant 3.3v converter all seams well.
I see you offer a separate board to connect the Ublox from the shield 5v to a 3.3v clean power supply to power the ublox. I see it also solves the Ublox tx and rx connection problem ?
Comment by Peter Meister on August 12, 2009 at 5:05pm
Bryan & Fefenin,

Have you tested the new code ??? I am on travel, eager to here of the results guys....

Comment by Earl on August 12, 2009 at 5:19pm
Ahh...I think I may have found the problem. If you remove power, then re power it again, it is doing a cold restart ???
Comment by fefenin on August 13, 2009 at 2:30am
i've tested the code only on a boat yesterday. (walkmode set)

RTL worked great but waypoint mode was confusing me ,the circle radius wasn't wide enaugh to make the boat accept the waypoint it was turning again and again around WP1

it worked great but i don't know with the IR stabilisation on , since i've got no plane left i would guess that you guys will probably try it first on a flying machine!!!!!!!

more trials today hopfully!!
Comment by Bryan Cuervo on August 13, 2009 at 4:35am
I'm in Washington this week at the AUVSI conference. Lots of cool stuff. Castle Creations/Neumotors is there along with Hitec. Otherwise, all of these toys are a little expensive for the hobbiest!
I plan on trying the new code next week.
Comment by Danilo Marques Figueiredo on August 13, 2009 at 7:36am
Hi guys!!!

When I test the IR sensor, with the code that was posted in the forum, what must to be showed?!


3D Robotics
Comment by Chris Anderson on August 13, 2009 at 7:45am

It depends on your sensors and the room you're testing in, but you should be able to see the effect on one of the XY or Z numbers when you put your finger on each of the sensor lenses (numbers will go up or down consistently)
Comment by Danilo Marques Figueiredo on August 13, 2009 at 8:12am
Thanks Chris!!!!

The sensors is working fine!!!

Comment by Earl on August 13, 2009 at 3:29pm
Jordi or Chris
I have a uBlox gps now. Here is the problem. It doesn't want to get a lock while running from the shield 3.3v. I also have the XBee modem on the same 3.3v. Current runs between 75 and 95ma for the uBlox.
So I put the uBlox on its own 3.3v power supply. It gets a lock. Current is the same. Between 75 and 95 ma.
I suspect the shield power supply has too much 'ripple' on it ? This is with it running from a BEC. The old gps did not experience this.
I see the new uBlox board has a 'super clean' 3.3v PS on it. Do you think this is the 'cure'?

3D Robotics
Comment by Chris Anderson on August 13, 2009 at 3:35pm

Jordi can answer that better, since he's been using the uBlox successfully for months now. But you'll note that the uBlox board we'll be selling has its own power regulator to ensure clean power.


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