How-To avoid sparks when connecting battery

Description of the problem to solve:

When a high enough current switching (transition to/from an on/off state) occurs in an electrical circuit, an electrical arc will form between the two switching contact surfaces, in order to oppose (resist to) this circuit change in current. 

The more inductance and/or capacitance in the circuit, the bigger the electric spark will be. Capacitors can be viewed as current storage devices (with a full or empty status, like water reservoirs) : when connecting a battery on an emtpy capacitor (e.g. an ESC), the maximum amperage the battery can deliver will flow into the circuit in a very short time to fill the capacitors (until the capacitors are full), producing a spark in the meantime.

This phenomenon is thus more severe when there is more total capacitance in the circuit. This is an issue with multicopters that have lots of capacitors in their power circuit : minimum 4 ESCs (for quads) and up to 8 ESCs (for octocopters), each ESC having multiple big capacitors.

The phenomenon is also more severe when the battery has a higher voltage (4S-> 5S-> 6S), simply because a higher voltage makes it easier to ionise a thin layer of air between the two switching contacts, as required to produce a spark.

Why should we avoid sparks ? to avoid damage to UAV's battery connectors (gold plated contact areas are damaged by repeated sparks, the plastic of the connectors will be burned, etc). Some sensitive electrical circuits do not like short bursts of high currents. For example, from experience, an attopilot (voltage and current sensor) circuit has been damaged by repeated sparks using a 6S battery....

Solution to the problem:

The solution is theoritically simple : capacitors have to be charged slowly (e.g. with a small current) before connecting the full amperage power of a battery to the ESCs circuits.

Many previous blog posts on diydrones & rcgroups have mentioned various solutions. The one described below synthesizes how to use an interesting circuit : a BTS555 integrated circuit,

As described in its datasheet, its applications are:

The two last bullet points, in particular, are the ones that interest us the most.

This BTS555 IC summary is given in the following datasheet extract:

We see from this datasheet table that a BTS555 will support a current load of 165 amps ! This is more than enough for a large multicopter. It operates up to 34V which is fine for up to 8S batteries.

From the datasheet we get the following pinout description:

In our application, only Pins 1, 2 and 5 will be used.

Pin 3 will not be used as it is replaced by the IC tab (for high current uses).

Pin 4 will not be used as we do not need to measure the current in our application (rather, a 3DR power module or an Attopilot would be used for that purpose)

How does this work ?

This BTS555 IC is connected between the battery leads and the power distribution board's leads. A small mechanical switch (for example a sliding switch. This switch interrupts a very small current, so no spark issue there) must be used to activate ON or OFF this circuit.

Here is the step by step process to power your multicopter using this circuit (assuming everything has been wired up as described below):

-Connect the BTS555 circuit to the power input leads of your power distibution board

-Ensure the activation switch is on its OFF position

-Connect the battery leads to the BTS555 circuit

-Activate the BTS555 circuit by flipping its switch to the ON position. Your mutlicopter receives now full power from the battery and the spark is avoided.

-If you use a double battery power feed on your drone, follow this same procedure when connecting a first battery. Then connect simply the second battery (no spark will be produced because all capacitors were loaded when the first battery was connected). You can then, optionally, remove the BTS555 circuit from the drone (to remove weight and to not depend on its reliability during flight. Simpler is better and more reliable)

How to wire everything up ?

As reliability is critical in flying multicopters, therefore to not depend on only one BTS555 circuit, the wiring scheme below uses two parallel BTS555 ICs...

The input and outputs of the overall circuit are XT90 connectors (safer than XT60 connectors for bigger multicopters). The elements (ICs, connectors) are soldered on a piece of PCB protoboard. XT90 connectors are soldered directly on each side of this PCB (more compact, no extra wires).

The wiring scheme is the following (for clarity, one side of the protoboard is used as a shared ground plane; the other side is the positive side divided in two zones: the top side where the IC tabs are soldered together and to the battery +Vin. Then the bottom side where pins 1,2 and 5 are soledred together and to the positive PDB output connector, but not to the TAB zone !) :

Concrete realisation :

This circuit has been tested succesfully on octocopters (8 ESCs) , 6S batteries with APM, Pixhawk, Attopilot module.

Cheers,

Hugues

Views: 28732

Comment by Jack Crossfire on July 16, 2014 at 5:09pm

This must be the 1st time someone quoted a datasheet on diydrones.

Comment by Neil Baker on July 16, 2014 at 8:08pm
I thought castle creations says spark is good for the capacitors? I own a couple helis on 12s and man they pop when plugged in. People were making resistors that plugged in before hand and castle said the contraptions were not a good idea. This was a couple years ago before sensitive flight controllers but during the flybarless revolution though.
Comment by Oz on July 16, 2014 at 9:23pm

Nice find! (semi new product)

This is how I solve the battery connector arcing plug issue, for ~20 cents or ~$2 if you don't have the $1.80 lipo alarm.

First get a LiPo alarm for ~$1.80 each (or one for each aircraft), these are very loud and almost the deaf can hear them while flying and they are adjustable voltage alarm set point (I set mine at 3.5v/per/cell on my high powered (7:1 power to weight, 1KW+ F330mm acro quads).

Here is where to buy the low cost lipo adjustable alarm:

http://www.ebay.com/itm/1-8S-Lipo-Li-ion-Fe-Battery-Voltage-2IN1-Te...

Then solder up a ground connector from your power distribution board (or battery ground connector) to the LiPo alarm ground (a simple ground to ground connection with ~20 awg wire),

Next, with ~ 20 awg wire, and in series from positive power distribution board (or battery plug) and the LiPo alarm, the most positive lead for the battery your using (if using a 3S, then solder to the 4th connection, for 4S solder to the 5th connection away from ground, etc), solder a ~15 to 25 Ohms, 1 to 3 watt) resistor.

Operation:

Plug in battery balance connector to LiPo alarm "first", the resistor then charges all the ESC caps (at a limited rate), then (seconds later) plug in the main battery connector, zero spark. 

Benefits:  Low cost, monitors every battery cell with loud alarm, zero extra resistance (better efficiency), all for the low cost of ~$2,

 Cons:  Need to plug in a extra (balance) connector (buts protects every battery cell, your aircraft, and personnel).

 

My 2 cents, Happy Flying,,

Comment by Rick on July 16, 2014 at 9:41pm

Oz took my glory!!!

This is the way I prefer it without having to buy someinthg "extra" to put on my multicopter. The voltage alarm is a must for anyone flying LiPo! So why not use it...plug it in first and your good to go!

Comment by Nick Arsov on July 16, 2014 at 10:53pm

Hi Hugo,

Yes, these devices have great potential. I'd tried the BTS555 a few years ago ( http://diydrones.com/profiles/blogs/using-smart-high-side-power-swi... ) in two revisions - single and double

but the main problem was with heat dissipation at high currents. So I took another alternative, which seems to have a better heat dissipation capabilities at higher curents - VND5004A-E ( http://www.st.com/web/catalog/sense_power/FM1965/SC1037/PF152009?sc... ). It seems that this VPower technology can give us many advantages in the future.....something like this....

...but the heat dissipation analysis need to be finished.

Comment by Nick Arsov on July 16, 2014 at 11:09pm

...forgot to mention that the single BTS555 board was FR4+Al substrate, but at very high currents it still needs a heat sinking.

Comment by chrisa on July 16, 2014 at 11:43pm

Ah yes, the plugging in the battery. The spark of life.
So beautiful.

I thought this was going to be about what happens when you put  + and - together.

There are things called Hexfet Mosfets u can use them in parallel to get more amps. Thanks for the pictures.

Comment by Darrell Burkey on July 16, 2014 at 11:56pm

I have friends who swear by Anderson Power Pole connectors rather than XT's. If I had it to do over I would be using them rather than XTs. Much easier to connect/disconnect and don't spark as well as handling higher current. But connectors are like religions with some people. So apologies in advance if this sparks a connector debate. 

Comment by Wessie on July 17, 2014 at 12:08am

LOL

"sparks a connector debate"

Sharp!

Having used them, and coming from an electronics background, I prefer and can see no reason why the simple resistor method is not the way to go.

Comment by Jesus A on July 17, 2014 at 3:53am

It is a good way to explore Hugues!

Until now we are using 6S bats and we have a 10ohm 2W resistor in series with Attopilot Voltage&Current Sensor and a JST connector

On the battery side we have another JST connector in parallel to the EC5 main connector

It works really well but it is true that we have to solder along with the EC5 connector a JST for each battery!

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