3D Robotics

ArduPilot (Legacy) main page




[This original ArduPilot board, now called the "Legacy ArduPilot" is no longer produced or officially supported by the DIY Drones dev team, and this page is maintained just for historic reasons. However, there are still many users of it out there and it still works fine. The user group for Legacy ArduPilot users, for both thermopile and IMU use, is here.]


ArduPilot is a full-featured autopilot based on the Arduino open-source hardware platform. It uses infrared (thermopile) sensors or an IMU for stabilization and GPS for navigation. It is the autopilot used to win the 2009 Sparkfun Autonomous Vehicle Competition.

The hardware is available from Sparkfun for $24.95. An expansion board ("Shield") kits that includes an airspeed sensor, a 3.3v power regulator for 3.3v GPS modules and other sensors and cables and connectors for easy attachment of the XY and Z sensors, is available from our own store for $57.20.


User f

ArduPilot features include:

  • Can be used for an autonomous aircraft, car or boat.
  • Built-in hardware failsafe that uses a separate circuit (multiplexer chip and ATTiny processor) to transfer control from the RC system to the autopilot and back again. Includes ability to reboot the main processor in mid-flight.
  • Multiple 3D waypoints (limited only by memory)
  • Altitude controlled with the elevator and throttle
  • Comes with a 6-pin GPS connector for the 4Hz uBlox5 or 1hz EM406 GPS modules.
  • Has six spare analog inputs (with ADC on each) and six spare digital input/outputs to add additional sensors
  • Supports addition of wireless modules for real-time telemetry
  • Based on a 16MhZ Atmega328 processor. Total onboard processing power aprox 24 MIPS.
  • Very small: 30mm x 47mm
  • Can be powered by either the RC receiver or a separate battery
  • Four RC-in channels (plus the autopilot on/off channel) can be processed by the autopilot. Autopilot can also control four channels out.
  • LEDs for power, failsafe (on/off), status and GPS (satellite lock).


ArduPilot requires the free Arduino IDE to edit and upload the code to the ArduPilot board.

The code is currently optimized for the Mutiplex EasyStar three-channel powered glider and FMA sensors, but can be modified for other aircraft and sensors. It uses the rudder/ailerons and elevator to maintain level flight and navigate to GPS waypoints. It supports a desktop setup utility and ground station software. It also includes a "fly-by-wire" mode that simply stabilizes RC flight. The main code is ArduPilot2.x.zip in the download section of our Google Code repository, where x is the latest version.

What you need to make a fully-functional autopilot:

Open source extras:

  • If you want to build your own board from scratch, the necessary files and component lists are here.
  • [Note: you shouldn't need this, since this code is loaded on the ArduPilot board at the factory] Latest multiplexer code (for the board's second processor, an Attiny, which runs the failsafe system) is here.
    Instructions for loading this code are here.

Recommended UAV setup:


Airframe option one: Hobbico SuperStar (49" wingspan, $95, shown above). This is an inexpensive, good flying high-wing trainer with ailerons. It can be hand launched in a park or take off from a runway, and replacement parts are readily available in case of a crash. If you want much better performance with this aircraft, you can upgrade it to a brushless motor, speed controller and a LiPo battery. [If you don't already have one, you'll also need a balancing charger and power supply.] Note: any stable aircraft with both ailerons (for stabilization) and rudder (for navigation) can work, so feel free to experiment with what you've got.


Airframe option two (recommended for ArduPilot 2.x): EasyStar (shown above). Performance can be improved with the modifications described in this post.

You'll also need:

  • A six or seven channel RC transmitter and receiver, with at least one toggle switch (ideally three-position but two-position will work, too, although you will have to mix channels to have access to both autopilot modes in the air), such as the Futaba 7C.
  • Some servos (at least three for ArduPilot 1.0; at least two for ArduPilot 2.x) and at least three female-to-female servo cables to connect the RC receiver to ArduPilot.

Cool optional extras for your UAV:

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  • V Tail..

    Is there a mix fuction for V-Tail to mix Rudder and Elevator..?

  • @Bakoyiannis
    Not sure, but try the paparazzi wiki or attopilot forum!
  • If you get this error with the config tool when trying to run a mission "If you can read this, your browser is not compatible with Google Maps" make sure you install Internet Explorer 7.
  • Hi,
    Can anyone direct where i can find a schematic of the FMA XY sensor board. I remember seeing it somewhere but can not located now. I would appreciate any help.
  • Hi Luis, I used XBEE PRO XSC proven range of 8km at $ 42 ea plus antennas, no interference with 72MHz radio and 2.4 Ghz video, but I should connect the xbee transmitter to separate (4.8v 2000mAh) battery (to avoid ardupilot resets) http://store.digi.com/index.cfm?fuseaction=product.display&Prod...
  • Plus the operating frequency from 470mhz to 510mhz no problem with the video transmitter(1,2ghz) or the rc gear (2,4ghz) and with 2km of range!
  • Hi to all,
    does anny of you ever try this RF modules on Arduino projects? Since i dont have a wight limit on my aeroplane i was planning to buy this set and not the Xbee. The reason: this two modules are sold together for the price of one Xbee Pro 900 that i was planing to buy.

  • Hello!

    Can you help me to solve the problem:

    I try today the 9DOF modul in glider plane (real glider plane) and output data displayed was not corrrect. On grond the unit working properly but only during flight and turn giving bad roll pitch data near to zero.

    Please help me!

    Best regards Peter Hajlik

    Please answer me to the : hajlik.peter@azet.sk
  • @ Rafael D.
    Thank you very much i will look it up.
  • Hi Theodoros !
    the chip is AD8552 , hope this help
This reply was deleted.