I've now finished coding up SplineNav version 0.2. It's almost a complete rewrite from version 0.1. Besides flying smoother and using processor resources more efficiently, it now restricts maximum speed to prevent lag. For example, if you're flying fast into a strong headwind, then altitude may get low due to insufficient downward thrust, and position may also start lagging target, resulting in corner cutting. SplineNav now tracks this, and continuously and smoothly adjusts target speed to allow the copter to keep up without major altitude loss. So it's now completely safe to crank up the speed settings and fly SplineNav really fast.
I collected the waypoints for this video while flying FPV, and flipping the channel 8 switch at each point I wanted to record. Then I loaded the waypoints into Mission Planner, and made some small adjustments (Figure 1). I also checked them by flying SplineNav at low speed first, and watching via FPV how close it got to the trees.
|Figure 1: Waypoints recorded during FPV flight and adjusted in Mission Planner|
After the low speed check I felt comfortable to fly it at max speed, although it was still very nerve racking, because it was zipping by a few meters from those weeping willow trees at about 60 km/h. I'm not sure I could have reacted in time to prevent my copter going to the bottom of the pond had a GPS error caused it to brush the willow branches and careen out of control!
After the flight, I loaded the log data into Google Earth and exported a KML file to overlay on the map, using Mission Planner's handy KML Overlay feature (Figure 2).
|Figure 2: Purple track is GPS recorded track during SplineNav flight|
As you can see, the GPS track indicates it hit all the waypoints very precisely, expect it slightly missed waypoint 8, which I attribute to the copter having just flown right next to a large building which could have caused GPS signal reflections.
The waypoints had a range of altitudes set, for a more interesting flight. Here is the flight profile from the data logs, imported into Google Earth:
|Altitude profile generated in Google Earth from flight log data|
Airframe: ArduPhantom (DJI Phantom case, stock motors, ESC, and battery)
Autopilot: 3DR APM 2.5
Gimbal: Hummer 2-axis brushless gimbal for DJI Phantom and GoPro 3
Camera: GoPro Hero 3 Silver
GPS: 3DR ublox LEA-6H
Telemetry: 3DR 433 MHz
R/C: FlySky TH9X(ER9X FW) + 2.4GHz FrSky DJT module + V8R7-II rx
FPV: ImmersionRC 5.8GHz 600mA + FatShark Predator goggles
This test was done using the excellent new ArduCopter 3.0.1 release code, that I then modified to include and call the SplineNav code.
The latest SplineNav code, already integrated into my own branch of ArduCopter 3.0.1, is available here: https://github.com/mavbot/SplineNav
Warning: Only install SplineNav if your copter is already working well with ArduCopter Version 3.0.1, and if you're experienced enough to test fly it safely.
1. Download the code with this link: https://github.com/mavbot/SplineNav/archive/SplineNav-0.2.zip and extract the zip file.
2. In the special Ardupilot version of Arduino, go to File -> Preferences and set your sketch directory to the path of the "SplineNav-SplineNav-0.2" directory from the extracted zip archive.
3. Restart Arduino, and choose File -> Sketchbook -> ArduCopter from the menu.
4. From the ArduPilot menu, make sure your HAL Board is set correctly.
5. Connect your copter's APM via USB, and from the Tools menu make sure the serial port is set correctly.
6. Click the Upload arrow button and wait for the code to compile and upload to your APM.
7. Set your waypoints (either with Mission planner or with the channel 7 or 8 switch), then go fly!
Note: Since there is not yet any SPLINENAV mode in Mission Planner, SplineNav for now just commandeers CIRCLE mode. So switch to CIRCLE mode on your transmitter when you're ready to fly your waypoints with SplineNav.
Here are the speed and acceleration parameters I used for this video (set in Mission Planner):
WPNAV_SPEED: 2000 cm/s
My copter can't fly 2000 cm/s, but SplineNav correctly kept the speed adjusted to what my copter can actually handle, and according to the GPS data it reached a maximum velocity of 1760 cm/s (63 km/hour).
WPNAV_SPEED_UP: 350 cm/s
WPNAV_SPEED_DN: 450 cm/s
WPNAV_LOIT_SPEED: 2500 cm/s
WPNAV_ACCEL: 500 cm/s/s
Also, the following parameters are #defines in the splinenav.h source code, but hopefully they will eventually become configurable parameters:
Higher tension splines curve more tightly at waypoints, but straighter in between waypoints. A tension value of 2 makes it a Catmull-Rom spline. I found that slightly lower tensions tend to give nice loose curves for smooth aerial video.
SPLINE_JERK: 500.0 cm/s/s/s
Jerk is the maximum rate that SplineNav increases or decreases acceleration as it flies the curve.
This makes SplineNav loop the waypoints forever until you exit out into another mode.